Reddy and her husband, Ramachandra Reddy, established a medical practice in Saudi Arabia. In 1985, upon the request of Rajiv Gandhi, the couple returned to India so that Geeta could work on behalf of the Indian National Congress party. She contested elections for the Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly in 1989 and became MLA for Gajwel in Medak district. She won that constituency again in 1999 and 2004.
In the 2009 elections, Reddy was parachuted into the Zahirabad constituency, which had elected INC candidates in every election bar one since 1957. Converted to a seat reserved for candidates from the Scheduled Castes, the constituency had been held for a decade by the INC's Mohammed Fareeduddin, who commanded much local respect but was forced by this decision to contest the election elsewhere and lost. She won the seat and did so again in 2014, despite allegations that Fareeduddin had been encouraging his local supporters to vote for any party except the INC. On this occasion, the election was for a seat in the newly created Telangana Legislative Assembly that was created as part of the bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh.
Reddy was a minister in the cabinets of Marri Chenna Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy and Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy. She was INC leader in the legislative assembly during the Rosaiah government.
- 1989-1994: Minister for Tourism, Culture, Social Welfare, Sports, Secondary Education and Protocol.
- 1995-1998: General Secretary, Pradesh Congress Committee (PCC)
- 1998-2000: Executive Member of PCC
- 2000-2004: President, Andhra Pradesh Mahila Congress Committee.
- 2004-2009: Minister for Tourism, Sugar and Major Industries commerce and Export promotion.
- 2009–2010: Minister for Information and Public relations, Tourism, Culture, FDC, Archaeology, Museums & Archives, Cinematography.
- 2010–2014: Minister for Major Industries, Sugar, Commerce and Export promotion
Reddy was also for some time around 2013 in charge of the Home department in the Andhra Pradesh government whilst also holding the Major Industries portfolio. In the same year, the Telugu Desam Party had demanded that she be dismissed as a minister due to her being one of the co-accused named by the Central Bureau of Investigation in its work on a case relating to alleged illegal assets held by Y. S. Jaganmohan Reddy. The matter was dropped, with one of her co-accused, Mopidevi Venkataramana Rao, claiming that the Chief Minister, Kiran Kumar Reddy, had intervened. In April 2016, Reddy was appointed as chairman of the Telangana Legislative Assembly's Public Accounts Committee.